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yi-JX SEP 11 1933 


The Races of Mankind 

An Introduction to Chauncey Keep Memorial Hall 



Assistant Curator of Physical Anthropology 

Preface by Berthold Laufer 

Curator, Department of Anthropology 

Introduction by Sir Arthur Keith 

Conservator and Professor in the Royal College of Surgeons of England 

9 Plates in Photogravure and 1 Plan of the Hall 

Leaflet 30 



The Anthropological Leaflets of Field Museum are designed to 
give brief, non-technical accounts of some of the more interesting 
beliefs, habits and customs of the races whose life is illustrated 
in the Museum's exhibits. 


1. The Chinese Gateway $ .10 

2. Philippine Forge Group 10 

3. Japanese Collections 20 

4. New Guinea Masks 15 

5. The Thunder Ceremony of the Pawnee 20 

6. The Sacrifice to the Morning Star by the Skidi 

Pawnee 10 

7. Purification of the Sacred Bundles, a Ceremony of 

the Pawnee 10 

8. Annual Ceremony of the Pawnee Medicine Men . .10 

9. The Use of Sago in New Guinea 10 

10. Use of Human Skulls and Bones in Tibet ... .10 

11. The Japanese New Year's Festival, Games and 

Pastimes 15 

12. Japanese Costume .20 

13. Gods and Heroes of Japan 15 

14. Japanese Temples and Houses 15 

15. Use of Tobacco among North American Indians . .20 

16. Use of Tobacco in Mexico and South America . . .15 

17. Use of Tobacco in New Guinea and Neighboring 

Regions 10 

18. Tobacco and Its Use in Asia 25 

19. Introduction of Tobacco into Europe 25 

20. The Japanese Sword and Its Decoration 15 

21. Ivory in China 60 

22. Insect- Musicians and Cricket Champions of China . .40 

23. Ostrich Egg-shell Cups of Mesopotamia and the 

Ostrich in Ancient and Modern Times ... .30 

24. The Indian Tribes of the Chicago Region with 

Special Reference to the Illinois and the 
Potawatomi 25 

25. The Civilization of the Mayas (Second Edition) . .60 

26. The Early History of Man 25 

27. The Giraffe in History and Art 60 

28. The Field Museum - Oxford University Expedition 

to Kish, Mesopotamia, 1923-1929 50 

29. Tobacco and Its Use in Africa 25 

30. The Races of Mankind 25 

May. 1933 

OF Ul 

unmmii of mmi 

Leaflet 30 

Plate 1 

Heroic size 

SEP 11 1933 




Preface by Berthold Laufer 3 

Introduction by Sir Arthur Keith 7 

Human Biology , 13 

Description of Races 17 

I. Africa ' 17 

II. Europe 21 

III. Asia 22 

IV. America 31 

V. Oceania 33 

Bibliography 37 

Plan of Chauncey Keep Memorial Hall (Hall 3) . . 38 

List of Sculptures by Malvina Hoffman 39 

Field Museum of Natural History 

Chicago. 1933 

Leaflet Numbeb SO 
Copyright 1933 by Field Museum of Natural History 


Plans for a hall to present to the public the biological 
problems of mankind were formulated in the Department 
of Anthropology under my direction as far back as 1915. 
This date is mentioned for no other reason than to em- 
phasize the difficulty of such an undertaking and to point 
out that in the course of the eighteen years which have 
lapsed between conception and completion the plan was 
carefully considered, frequently modified and finally 
carried out after long and mature deliberation and 
thorough study of every detail. 

Hall 3, which is devoted to the Races of Mankind, 
is located on the north side in the east wing of the build- 
ing, and is named Chauncey Keep Memorial Hall in 
honor of the late Chauncey Keep, a highly valued member 
of the Museum's Board of Trustees from 1915 until his 
death in 1929. A legacy of $50,000 left by him to the 
Museum has been applied to the hall and its contents. 
A generous share in the cost of the bronzes has been 
assumed by Mr. Marshall Field. Other contributors are 
Mrs. Stanley Field and Mrs. Charles H. Schweppe. 

Sir Arthur Keith, who has rendered many valuable 
services to Malvina Hoffman in her work and who has 
been good enough to write an introduction to this leaflet, 
is a leading authority on anthropology and an expert on 
the reconstruction of prehistoric man from fragments or 
fossil remains. He was professor of comparative anatomy 
at the Royal Institution (1917-23) and became conservator 
of the Museum and professor at the Royal College of 
Surgeons in 1908. He was secretary and later president of 

4 Field Museum op Natural History 

the Anatomical Society of Great Britain and president 
of the Royal Anthropological Institute (1913-17). He 
was knighted in 1921, and was designated president of 
the British Association in 1927. He is the author of 
numerous treatises and many books, as, for instance, 
Human Embryology and Morphology (4th ed., 1921); 
Antiquity of Man (2 vols., 7th ed., 1929); Engines of the 
Human Body (2nd ed., 1925); Nationality and Race 
(1919); and Religion of a Darwinist (1925). 

Anthropology is a young science, its problems are 
complex and manifold, and there is still a wide divergence 
of opinion as to methods, conclusions, and results. Many 
fundamental subjects have been treated just at the surface, 
as, for instance, the question as to what is normal or 
abnormal in the human body and mind. The favorite 
classification of the human species according to skin color 
has not yet passed beyond the stage of common experience. 
A solid technique for the study of skin color and its 
nomenclature has not yet been developed; in speaking 
of white, yellow, black, and red men we follow merely 
a popular terminology and take surface impressions for 
granted, while as a matter of fact the color variability 
of the complexion in individuals is almost infinite and 
no one is either strictly white or yellow or black or red. ' 

Much harm has been done by the general confusion 
of the terms race, nationality, language, and culture, all 
of which are entirely distinct. The best known school 
example illustrating the application of these terms is 
presented by our Negroes in America. As a biological 
type our Negroes belong to the African or "black" race 
and will always remain within this division; even inter- 
marriage with whites will not modify their racial charac- 
teristics to any marked degree. As to language they have 
adopted English in North America and therefore belong 
to the English-speaking group of peoples, and Spanish 
or Portuguese in Central and South America, while they 
have forgotten the Bantu speech of their forefathers. As 

Leaflet 30 

Plate II 

Life size 

'fit LmAHi 
Of rȣ 

WirfflSJiy OF lUdini 

Preface 5 

to culture they have adapted themselves to their new 
environment, have adopted the Christian religion, and 
live in the same manner as other Americans, while 
African survivals of culture have almost disappeared. We 
cannot speak of a Negro nationality in America as the 
Negroes do not form a political unit, but live sporadically 
scattered in the white communities. It is chiefly social 
and legal restriction and segregation that keeps their race 
consciousness alive. We can observe every day in our 
country that immigrants frorii Europe exchange their 
own language for English and that their descendants, 
already in the first generation, become oblivious of the 
speech of their fathers. The Bulgars who now speak a 
Slavic language were in their origin a tribe of the Turkish 
stock of peoples. The Manchus, who issued from the 
Tungusian stock, dropped their own language after the 
conquest of China and evolved into Chinese in speech, 
customs, and habits. The majority of Jews no longer 
converses in Hebrew, but is thoroughly assimilated to the 
speech and environment of the country in which they 
reside. Language therefore is an unsafe criterion for the 
classification of peoples and, while it is the foundation of 
all that constitutes nationality and is a part of our cultural 
heritage, a close examination of historical facts is required 
to determine the linguistic relationship of a nation. 

One of the most misunderstood and misused terms is 
the word Aryan. In its origin this word belonged to the 
Sanskrit and Iranian languages and designated the Indian 
and Iranian stock as a unit before their division and 
migration into India and Iran, respectively. When the 
linguistic relationship of Sanskrit and Iranian with Greek, 
Latin, Slavic, Germanic, and Celtic was discovered, the 
term Aryan was sometimes applied by European philolo- 
gists to this entire family of languages, but is now fortu- 
nately replaced by the term Indo-European. There is, 
however, no such thing as an Aryan race, nor are blond 
hair, fair skin, and blue eyes characteristic of Indo- 

6 Field Museum of Natural History 

Europeans. On the contrary, there is no blondness among 
the people of India and Iran, while it equally occurs 
among Semites, Turks, Finno-Ugrians, and Central- 
Asiatics. The most perfect specimen of what is popularly 
but wrongly styled "Aryan" I met in an Osman from 
Constantinople. A great scholar, Max Miiller of Oxford, 
expressed the opinion, "To me an ethnologist who speaks 
of Aryan race, Aryan blood, Aryan eyes and hair, is as 
great a sinner as a linguist who would speak of a dolicho- 
cephalic dictionary or a brachycephahc grammar." 

Race means breed and refers to the physical traits 
acquired by heredity, in contrast with experience and the 
total complex of habits and thoughts acquired from the 
group to which we belong; in other words, the social herit- 
age called culture. The behavior of a nation is not deter- 
mined by its biological origin, but by its cultural traditions. 

With the advance of our civilization and the white 
man's expansion all over the globe many primitive tribes 
are now doomed to extinction and are gradually dying 
out. It may be questioned whether any vestiges of the 
life and culture of primitive man will have remained on 
this earth by the time the following century arrives. 
Many a vanishing race will continue to live only in the 
statues and busts displayed in this hall. 

Anthropology is essentially a science of human under- 
standing and conciliation based on profound human 
sympathies that extend alike to all races of mankind. 
Solely a mind endowed with the gift of such sympathies 
was capable of creating the sculptures arrayed in this 
hall, which are pervaded by a refined and humane spirit. 
If the visitors to the hall will receive the impression that 
race prejudice is merely the outcome of ignorance and will 
leave it with their sympathy for mankind deepened and 
strengthened and with their interest in the study of 
mankind stimulated and intensified, our efforts will not 
have been futile and will have fulfilled their purpose. 

Berthold Laufer 



The human family at present is very large and very 
complex. It numbers 1,800,000,000 or more; it is scattered 
over the face of the whole earth, and is divided into an 
exceedingly great number of forms, breeds, and races. 
How can such a vast assortment of diverse individuals 
be given a true and effective representation in a museimi? 
According to established precedent, human skulls, skele- 
tons, photographs, charts, casts, and models brought home 
from all lands fill the exhibition cases of such a hall in 
museums. And such collections no doubt prove of great 
value to professional students of anthropology, but 
exhibits of this nature are likely to repel rather than to 
attract visitors to the study of mankind. 

Field Museum has adopted the sensible plan of giving 
the races of mankind a plastic representation in the new 
hall devoted to this subject. This plan was initiated four 
years ago when Malvina Hoffman was commissioned to 
proceed to those lands where native races are at their 
purest and there register in clay and finish in bronze the 
living lineaments of selected types. The sculptor has 
made the scheme adopted an undisputed success. Her 
representations of humanity are works both of beauty 
and of truth. 

Those who have followed Malvina Hoffman's career 
were convinced at the outset that there would be no risk 
of failure. The hands which have fixed in living clay the 
motions and grace of the dancing Pavlova could not fail 
to catch the essential traits of race — catch them by her 
art far more effectively than any anthropologist could 
have done by calipers, tape, and camera. The mono- 
graph devoted by Arsene Alexandre to the art of Malvina 
Hoffman and published in Paris (1930) contains reproduc- 
tions of certain unintentional studies of race. In search 
of fresh fields in which to exercise her gifts of portraiture, 

8 Field Museum of Natural History 

Malvina Hoffman sought for types in Africa and in the 
Far East. She created an African slave carved in wood, 
a black marble bust of a Senegalese soldier, and the mask 
of a Javanese woman — works of art of the highest merit. 
In these sculptures the anthropologist finds triumphant 
expressions of race. Intuition had transformed the artist 
into an anthropologist; the mirror of her imagination 
caught from her sitters and held only the essential traits 
of race. I have used the word "intuition," but it must 
not be supposed that Malvina Hoffman obtains her 
results easily; her portraits are purchased by an exhausting 
expenditure of mental power. She is a great sculptor 
who lavishes her art in the service of anthropology. 

The fact must not be overlooked that a knowledge of 
physical and racial anthropology is not confined to those 
who work in museums and universities. We are all 
anthropologists; we became so as soon as we could recog- 
nize the features of the mother who suckled us. Our 
anthropological knowledge grew as we came to know the 
facial traits and bodily habits of our family circle. Year 
after year we have continued, quite unconsciously, to add 
to our gallery of mental portraiture. The community in 
which we are born and bred provides us with our anthro- 
pological standards. If into our community there should 
stray people from distant lands, from Africa, India, or 
China, there is no need for us to measure their heads, 
faces, or bodies in order to recognize their race. The 
eye, at a single glance, picks out the racial features more 
certainly than could a band of trained anthropologists, 
who depend on measurements to distinguish Negro, 
Indian, or Chinaman from European. The number of 
features we take into momentary consideration as we 
make a racial diagnosis is inconceivably great. The aim 
of the professional anthropologist is to tabulate these 
racial features and to measure them; but so numerous 
are they, so shifting and indeterminate in nature, that 
scientific measurement can never rival the accuracy and 

Leaflet 30 

Plate III 


Life size 


Introduction 9 

completeness of the rule of thumb method practised by 
the man in the street. The artist who secures a striking 
likeness does so because he or she is an anthropologist 
by intuition. We professional anthropologists can never 
hope to obtain by mere measurements the accuracy of 
racial portraiture which comes by instinct to the true 
artist. I hold that the busts, figures, and groups modeled 
by Malvina Hoffman are priceless registers of anthro- 
pological fact and in the full sense of the term are scientific 
docimients as well as works of art. 

Certainly I am far from decrying anthropology as a 
science. Anthropologists must make precise measure- 
ments. Only by adopting such methods can there be a 
real advance in the study of human races. But I do 
contend with all my might that scientific anthropology 
must depend on the eye of the true artist for the recognition 
and embodiment of racial types. Visitors to Chauncey 
Keep Memorial Hall will find in the bronzes on exhibition 
there the finest racial portraiture that the world has seen. 

Thus a permanent abode has been provided for repre- 
sentative members of the human family in Field Museum 
of Natural History. What a motley of types our hmnan 
family is! And yet, as we pass round the hall and make 
the acquaintance of the chosen representatives of living 
races, we see that amid what at first seems unredeemable 
confusion there emerge three main types of humanity — 
the white or European, the yellow or Mongolian, the 
black or Negro. The recognition of these three prevailing 
types and the perception of the differences which separate 
them, as well as the similarities which unite them, repre- 
sent the central crux of modem anthropology. Malvina 
Hoffman has given to this crux or problem a concrete 
representation which rightly occupies the central space 
of the hall. On the top of a three-sided bronze pillar is 
placed a terrestrial globe. On each side, under the globe, 
is placed the statue of a man — a Nordic, an East-Asiatic, 
and an African. The types have been chosen most 

10 Field Museum op Natural History 

aptly. The artist has shown no favoritism. The three 
types have received equal treatment. It is right that 
this group should hold a central position in the hall, for 
no one can look at those three figures without asking 
the question, Why this diversity of racial type? For 
whether we accept the Biblical account of man's creation 
or his emergence by evolutionary means, we have to believe 
in the original unity of mankind. Out of unity has come 
the diversity portrayed by the statues in the central group. 

Critics may remind me that the human types which 
prevailed in Egypt five thousand years ago are still 
recognizable in our modern world. This is so. But in 
turn I would ask my critics to go back fifty thousand years, 
and what then? The answer is given in Hall C, devoted 
to the Stone Age of the Old World, in Field Museum. 
The prehistoric human types there exhibited differ pro- 
foundly from their modem representatives. A tendency 
to change is inherent in human flesh; in reality, the 
world of humanity is not the same for two consecutive 
days. Man to a higher degree than most animals is 
subject to the laws of evolutionary change. 

When we accept the laws of human mutability, the 
interest of the racial types portrayed by Malvina Hoffman 
grows upon us. Let us take her representatives of the 
Mongolian family, to which has been assigned an important 
section of the exhibition area. The family occupies, or 
did occupy, a large part of the earth — eastern Asia, where 
the type now finds its most distinctive characterization, 
farther India, the Malay Archipelago, many islands of 
the Pacific, and the entire American continent. The 
central representative types from China, Manchuria, 
Mongolia, Tibet, and Japan are well chosen and excellently 
executed. However, it is not these, but the more aberrant 
types from the periphery of the Mongolian area, which 
excite the interest of the anthropologist. In the graceful 
Hawaiian surf-rider and in the male types from Hawaii 
and Samoa the Mongolian features are somewhat masked. 

Introduction 11 

and yet in the Pacific we find every link that unites them 
to the purer types of eastern Asia. Particularly interesting 
are the two representative Ainus. One is the bearded 
Mongol with whom all are familiar. The other repre- 
sentative Ainu might be a Samoan or a Maori as well. 
Mongolian humanity seems to have evolved from a darker 
prototype. Again, in the Jakuns of the Malay Peninsula 
we recognize the marks of the true Mongol. But what 
of the Sakai of the same land? In the splendid head 
modeled from life by Malvina Hoffman we observe a 
prevalence of African and of Australoid characters, and 
yet withal is there not also apparent something Malayan 
or Mongolian? The variability of the Mongolian type 
in America is also brought out by the exhibits in the 
Hall of the Races of Mankind. The typical Mongolian 
features may be unmistakable, as in the Eskimo, or 
they may be almost completely replaced by Caucasoid 
features as in the Sioux and Blackfoot Indians. How are 
we to account for the range of variations which prevails 
within a single type of humanity? The easiest solution 
is to suppose that variations have arisen from the mixing 
of pure breeds, but even if we accept this explanation 
for some of the aberrant forms just mentioned, we still 
have to account for the appearance of the original or 
pure types. To explain satisfactorily the racial problems 
so realistically and so truthfully presented to us in this 
hall, we have to accept as a truth the prevalence of the 
laws of evolution in the world of humanity. 

It was when Malvina Hoffman's enthusiasm came to 
portray the racial types of Africa that it reached its 
highest and happiest flights. The central type of Africa 
is represented by a Senegal Negro beating a drum. The 
genial Batwa youth from the Belgian Congo and the 
graceful dancing girl of the Sara tribe are close akin to 
this central type. The placid and serene face of the 
Abyssinian girl and the fuzzy-headed Somali shown in a 
bust display an early affinity of the African type with 

12 ' Field Museum of Natural History 

those of Arabia and of India. The Bushman, the most 
aberrant of all African types, is very artistically conceived. 
The Bushman woman and her baby appeal with equal 
force to the student of races, the professional artist, and the 
lover of mankind. When we have noted the exceedingly 
great number of variations taken by black-skinned races 
and how aberrant some of these African types are, such 
as the Bushman and Ituri Pygmies, we realize how fertile 
the African continent has been in the production of human 

In speaking of the white, yellow, and black types of 
humanity represented in the central group, I pointed out 
the similarities which unite these types as well as the 
differences which separate them. During many thousands 
of years the world of humanity has been in the throes 
of evolution, and these are the dominant types which 
have emerged. I do not wish to leave the impression that 
I regard the choice samples of humanity now assembled 
in the Hall of the Races of Mankind as mere illustrations 
of the manner in which the laws of evolution work out 
their effects on mankind. To me every type is nature's 
attempt to give the world a happier and better kind of 

Sir Arthur Keith 

Conservator and Professor in the Royal College 

of Surgeons of England, 

Corresponding Member of Field Museum 


^ i 

pa . 


Of Tttt 



The bronze figures and busts in this hall were selected 
as representatives of the more important divisions of 
the human species, particular emphasis being laid on 
primitive and lesser known peoples of the worid. The 
principle of arrangement in the hall is geographical and 
may be ascertained from the plan shown on page 38. The 
central group (Plate I), which is intended to symbolize 
the unity of mankind, man as a well-defined, uniform 
species, is composed of three statues of heroic size repre- 
senting a white, a yellow, and a black man standing 
beneath a large globe upon which the five continents as 
the habitat of the human species are outlined. Each 
embodies the highest physical qualities of his race. 

The science of human biology, or, as it is also called, 
physical anthropology, deals with the structure of the 
human body; the distinctive physical characters of the vari- 
ous racial divisions of mankind; the interrelationship 
of the peoples of the world; and the geographical distri- 
bution of man. In the study of the anatomy and physi- 
ology of man, therefore, he is regarded as an animal species, 
and research is based on living people, fossilized human 
remains, and both living and fossil animals closely related 
to man. The study of somatic structure can be divided 
into two parts — the physical characters of the living 
person and the anatomy of the skeleton. 

Upon examination, the bodily structure of man differs 
so slightly from that of the higher apes that he must be 
classed in the same general division of the animal kingdom, 
where he occupies the special subdivision Hominidae. 
While there are numerous schemes of classifying the 
various races of mankind, it is desirable to recognize 
three main divisions based on the color of the skin and 


14 Field Museum op Natural History 

the characters of the hair. The three groups are the 
Caucasian or white races, the Mongolian or yellow races 
of Asia, and the Negroid or black races of Africa. 

In order to define a race, and also for comparison of 
racial characters either in the same group or among 
divergent peoples, a series of measurements and observa- 
tions must be made. For example, if a comparative 
study of the stature of the northern and southern Chinese 
should be desired, it would be necessary to obtain by 
measurements the average standing height of a large 
number of individuals of both groups. The shape of the 
head forms one of the most important criteria for pre- 
liminary classification. The length and breadth of the 
head are obtained by means of special calipers. The 
ratio of the length to the breadth is expressed as a per- 
centage, which is known as the cephalic index. When 
the ratio is below 75 per cent the head is said to be long, 
and when above 80 per cent the term "round head" is 

There are a number of measurements on the head and 
body which have been standardized, so that the data 
obtained can be used for comparative purposes. Other 
criteria are the color of the skin, hair, and eyes and the 
form of the nose, ears, and lips. The influence of heredity 
and the effects of environment are additional problems 
which are of great importance and require more profound 
study. Racial mixtures, the effects of disease on a popula- 
tion, artificial deformation of the head and other organs, 
growth changes, bodily functions such as the use and 
adaptation of special organs, for instance the hands and 
feet, are other problems of paramount significance. The 
physical characters which can be used for a preliminary 
racial analysis are the form, color, and quantity of the 
hair; the color of the skin; the shape of the head and face; 
and the character of the nose, eyes, mouth, and lips. 
The stature is also used as a valuable criterion of racial 

Human Biology 16 

The hair may be classified as straight, as among the 
Mongoloid peoples; wavy, as typified by Europeans; or 
woolly, as illustrated by the Negro. While there are 
infinite varieties and shades of hair color, they are generally 
classified as fair, dark, and black. Among the fair-haired 
peoples the Scandinavian group is perhaps the most con- 
spicuous, Negroes present a dark-haired example, and 
the Mongols are typical of the black-haired peoples. 

The variations in skin color naturally grade one into 
another, particularly where there is racial intermarriage, 
but three basic color groups — white, yellow and black — 
are recognized as principles of classification. 

There are three main types of head shapes — long, 
round, and intermediate. These divisions are based on 
the relation of the length of the skull to the breadth. 
For example, the head is termed long if the breadth is 
less than three-quarters of the length, and within this 
division are included North and South Europeans and 
the inhabitants of Africa. The round-headed peoples 
are typified by the Mongoloid group and the Alpine 
race of central Europe. 

In profile the face may project markedly forward 
from the line of the forehead, as among the Negroes 
(prognathism), in contrast to the normal projection among 
European peoples. In general, long-headed individuals 
have narrow faces, while broad faces are associated with 
round heads. There are, however, some notable excep- 
tions to this harmonic relation, as, for example, the long 
head and broad face of the Eskimo and the broad head 
and narrow face so characteristic of the Basque. 

The nose is a feature which has always attracted 
attention. In profile, noses are classified as long or short, 
concave, straight, or convex. The root may be pinched 
or broad; the nostrils may be narrow, medium, or broad. 
The relation of the length to the breadth of the nose is 
a valuable physical criterion. In general the white races 

16 Field Museum op Natural History 

have narrow noses; the Negroes have the typical broad 
nose with flaring nostrils; and the Mongoloid group has 
an intermediate nasal index. The so-called Jewish nose 
is not tjrpical of the true Semites, as, for example, the 
Beduins of North Arabia, but appears to be a racial 
character inherited from the ancient Hittites. 

The variations in eye color make this character of 
little value as a racial trait. The shape of the opening 
is generally horizontal and widely open in Europeans, 
while in the Far East it is often almond-shaped, and a 
fold of skin, called the Mongolian fold, frequently covers 
the inner angle of the eye. The shape of the mouth and 
the thickness of the lips are often valuable criteria, since 
there is a wide range of variation from those of the 
European to the thick-lipped West African Negro. 

Stature is another character which possesses racial 
significance. Variations in standing height are governed 
by hereditary traits combined with environmental factors. 
For example, stunted peoples usually inhabit regions of 
the earth where the struggle for existence is keen, or 
heavily forested areas where there is an absence of sun- 
light. On the other hand, nomadic existence in a pleasant 
land appears to favor tall stature. For example, the Nil- 
otic Negroes, including the Shilluk (Plate II), are very tall, 
while the Eskimos belong to the medium short group. 

This brief introduction is followed by a general survey 
of the races of mankind. For the sake of clarity the 
peoples of each continent will be examined according to 
the geographical arrangement of the sculptures in the hall 
(Plan, p. 38). These are exhibited in the following 
order: Africa, Europe, Asia, America, and Oceania. 

Leaflet 30 

Plate V 


Life size 


m:Bt:]i OF [lum 


I. Africa 

The continent of Africa covers an area of 12,000,000 
square miles, almost four times the size of the United 
States. The population has been roughly estimated at 
150,000,000, but this is a vague approximation. About 
two-thirds of the continent — the forest zone comprising 
a western coastal strip and a large central area — is the 
habitat of true Negroes. These show many important 
local variations in physical appearance. The general 
physique of the African is well represented in the black 
man's statue in tKe central group. 


The Negro is characterized by a dark skin color vary- 
ing from extremely dark brown to almost black, though 
perhaps the skin is never jet black, and the stature varies 
considerably according to locality. The Kru of Liberia, 
the Ibo of Nigeria, and the Ijaw of the Niger Delta are 
often mentioned as primitive physical Negro types. The 
West African coastal Negro is long-headed, of medium 
stature, extremely well developed, with a heavy torso 
and massive limbs. The arms are long and the legs short 
in comparison with the length of the trunk. In all Negroes 
the face is usually broad and massive, sometimes with a 
projecting chin. The nose is broad, and the lips are thick 
and everted. Dark eyes and woolly hair likewise are 
constant Negro features. The problems as to the origin 
of Negro types are too complex to be discussed here, yet 
the main branches of Negro stock may be mentioned. 


In order to account for this type, which is usually 
called Nilotic, a hypothesis regarding the intrusion of a 
foreign race is necessary. Anthropologists believe that 
migratory waves of people, called Hamites, penetrated 


18 Field Museum op Natural History 

northeast Africa from a remote period long before the 
dawn of history. It is thought also that the crossing of 
these Hamitic intruders with the true Negro produced 
the Nilotic type. The Nilotic Negroes, if compared with 
true Negroes of West Africa, show greater stature, a far 
more slender build, and a refinement of physiognomy, 
usually in the form of a narrower nose and thinner lips. 


In Kenya Colony are tribes whose physical type has 
been affected by intrusive Hamites. Here, as among the 
Nilotic Negroes, the true Negro physique has been 
modified in the direction of greater stature, a less massive 
build, and a refinement of the nose and mouth. These 
"Hamiticised" Negroes, of whom the Suk, the Masai, 
and the Nandi are examples, are referred to by some 
anthropologists as Half-Hamites. 


From a racial standpoint the Bushmen are the most 
interesting people south of equatorial Africa. At present 
they are mainly confined to the Kalahari Desert. The 
Bushmen possess short, frizzly hair which grows in separate 
tufts coiled into balls and because of its appearance is 
known as "peppercorn" hair. There is very little hair 
on the face and body. The skin ranges in color from yellow 
to olive, and becomes markedly wrinkled at an early age. 
The head is extremely small, low in the crown, and in 
shape intermediate between long and round. The width 
of the cheek-bones combined with the narrowness of the 
forehead gives the face a lozenge-shaped appearance. The 
forehead is slightly protruding, and the nose is broader 
and flatter than in any other race. The dark eyes are 
often narrow and slightly oblique. The average male is 
below five feet in stature. In both sexes there is a peculiar 
development of the buttocks, which is often extremely 
accentuated among the women. The racial mixture of 
the Bushmen with Negroes and possibly, with early invad- 

Description op Races 19 

ing Hamites resulted in a slightly taller people called 
Hottentots, who possess a longer and narrower head and a 
more protruding face. The Hottentots formerly inhabited 
the western part of South Africa, but their tribal organiza- 
tion is preserved at present only in Southwest Africa. 


It has not yet been determined what genetic relation- 
ship exists between true Negroes, Pygmies (often called 
Negrillos), Bushmen, and Hottentots. Here a caution is 
necessary, since many small Negroid tribes of the central 
forest region are referred to as Pygmies. But some of 
these (for example, the Batwa represented in a bronze 
bust, No. 6) have probably issued from a crossing of 
Pygmies with Negroes. 

There are, however, groups of true Pygmies, the most 
tjHpical of which are the Wambuti of the Ituri Forest in 
the northeast Belgian Congo. Their dark brown hair is 
usually short. Their skin color varies from light brown 
with a yellow tinge to a very dark chocolate color. The 
average male stature is five feet two inches, and both the 
body and legs are short. There is a peculiar development 
of the buttocks similar to that of the Kalahari Bushmen. 
In shape the head is intermediate between long and round, 
and there is some protrusion of the face. The lips are 
full, and the root of the nose is flat and broad. 


The Hamites, who inhabit north and northeast Africa, 
belong to the Caucasian branch of mankind. They possess 
dark brown or black hair, which is either curly or wavy 
in form, and the skin varies in color from reddish brown 
to dark brown. Their average stature is about five feet 
five inches, and their build is slender. The typical 
Hamite possesses a long head, an oval elongated face 
with no forward protrusion, thin lips, pointed chin, and 
a prominent, well-shaped, narrow nose. Two main divi- 
sions of Hamites must be recognized, the northern and 

20 Field Museum of Natural History 

eastern. The principal northern Hamites are the Berbers 
and the Tuareg, who are confined to the Sahara region. 
The eastern group of Hamites comprises the Somali, 
Hadendoa, and Bisharin peoples. 


These people, now living in north and northeast 
Africa, migrated from Arabia at an early date. They 
are medium in stature, long-headed and dark-haired, and 
possess elliptical faces with straight or convex noses. 
This group has intermarried with other racial divisions; 
for example, with Negroes, so that intermediate Arab- 
Negro types have been produced. 

We now proceed to a review of the sculptures in the 
hall. The Hamitic peoples from the north and northeast 
of Africa are represented by four examples. The bronze 
bust of an Abyssinian (No. 14) shows the fine, delicate 
features characteristic of the group. There is also the head 
of an Abyssinian woman (No. 3) carved out of black 
Belgian marble. The regularity of the features and the 
peculiar method of dressing the hair are particularly well 
portrayed by the medium employed. The bust of a 
Somali (No. 12) also exhibits the typical Hamitic features, 
while the Nubian (No. 15) shows a mixture of Hamitic 
and Negro blood. This man is from Luxor in Egypt, 
but the thickness of his lips differentiates him slightly 
from the typical Fellah of the Nile Valley. 

The Negroes of the Upper Nile Valley are represented 
by a noteworthy full-length statue — a Shilluk warrior 
(No. 9; Plate II). This dark-skinned man is six feet eight 
inches in height. He is standing on one leg in the peculiar 
pose characteristic of these people. The Mangbetu of 
the northeast Congo region are primarily a true Negro 
type; but the light brown skin of the aristocratic class 
suggests some Hamitic mixture. The bust of a Mangbetu 
woman (No. 7) is interesting for the peculiar mode of 
hair-dressing and the deformation of the head. The 

Description of Races 21 

heads of children are bound tightly with bandages which 
force them to grow both long and narrow. The resulting 
deformation is considered a mark of beauty. The profile 
of this woman clearly shows the effects of this treatment. 

The Negro type is illustrated by two full-length 
figures which are complementary: a Senegalese drummer 
(No. 13) and a dancing girl of the Sara tribe (No. 5). 
These two statues, coated with a black patina, are shown 
in poses characteristic of the rhythmic movements asso- 
ciated with Negro music. The vivacious and graceful 
figure of the girl in dancing posture strikingly contrasts 
with the dreamy expression of the drummer. 

In Dahomey, a French possession on the Guinea coast 
of West Africa, occurs a true Negro type. A well-developed 
Dahomey man is shown in a bust (No. 8). The head of 
a woman (No. 11) from the Sudan shows the remarkable 
coiffure which is fashionable among her people. The 
head of a Ubangi duck-billed girl (No. 10) portrays one 
of the most remarkable artificial deformations in existence. 
A girl's lips are perforated, and small studs are inserted 
in order to broaden them. At intervals the size of the 
lip studs is increased, so that the lower lip eventually 
has to be supported from below by the hand. The central 
or equatorial peoples of Africa are represented by a life- 
size group of Ituri Forest Pygmies (No. 16). While the 
man beats rhythmically on the skin of the drum, his wife 
carrying her small baby listens attentively. 

The splendid Bushman family group (No. 1) shows a 
hunter accompanied by his wife, who carries the baby 
strapped to her back. In addition, there are the bust 
of a Bushman woman (No. 4) and the head of a man 
(No. 2) which portray well the racial characters of this 
primitive people. 

II. Europe 

The modem inhabitants of Europe can be divided into 
three groups — Mediterranean, Alpine, and Nordic. While 
there has been untold interbreeding of these basic stocks 

22 Field Museum of Natural History 

since paleolithic times, it is still possible to adopt this 
classificatory system. 

The Mediterranean or brown race is exemplified by 
an Italian (No. 18), who is short in stature and light 
in build, with an olive complexion, dark hair and eyes, 
long head, narrow oval face, and a small mouth. This 
group is now mainly confined to the Iberian Peninsula, 
western Mediterranean islands, southern France and Italy, 
and the western part of Great Britain. 

The Alpine race comprises the majority of the round- 
headed peoples of Europe. They extend from the central 
plateau of France, Switzerland, and Czechoslovakia south- 
ward into the Balkans and eastward into Russia. A 
typical member of this group possesses a fairly dark com- 
plexion, brown wavy hair, thick eyebrows over brown 
eyes, strong body hair, broad face, sometimes a thick 
neck, and a medium to heavy build. 

The Nordic peoples inhabit Scandinavia, northern 
Germany, and part of Holland and Belgium. There is 
also a strong Nordic element in Great Britain. A tall 
Swede, with light complexion and hair, blue eyes, long 
head, and face with a prominent nose and chin, is a 
typical member of this racial group. 

The racial divisions of Europe are represented by the 
full-length figures of a Sicilian fisherman (No. 18) who 
is shown with his fishing net, and a Nordic (No. 21). 
In this section are also displayed busts of a woman 
(No. 20) from Brittany, France, with her picturesque 
head-dress, and of a Basque (No. 22; Plate IV, Fig. 1) 
from northern Spain. There are also heads of an Anglo- 
Saxon (No. 19) and a Mediterranean (No. 17) of the 
type so often seen in France. 

III. Asia 

The study of the peoples of Asia is beset with numerous 
difficulties and presents many complex problems. In view 
of the evidence available it seems probable that man 

Description of Races 23 

originated somewhere on this vast continent. A general 
survey of Asia is presented here based on six large geo- 
graphical divisions: southwest, south, southeast, east, 
central, and north. 


This area was originally inhabited by early members 
of the Mediterranean stock, which forms the basic popula- 
tion at the present time. The northern and southern 
extremities of this section are inhabited by round-headed 
peoples. For example, in Armenia and Anatolia the 
characteristic individual possesses dark hair, a tawny- 
white skin, medium stature, and a prominent aquiline 
nose with a depressed tip and large wings. Along the 
southern coast of Arabia the dominant type is round- 
headed, and there are also smaller groups, such as the 
Druzes, scattered along the west coast and in Mesopotamia 
(Iraq) on the east. As a representative of the great Arab 
group (No. 24) there was selected one of the workmen 
at Kish, where Field Museum and Oxford University have 
been conducting archaeological excavations on a large 
scale for ten seasons. 

The Jewish people, who form part of the great Mediter- 
ranean group, are divided into two stocks — the Ash- 
kenazim and the Sephardim. The former includes the 
Jews of Russia and of central and western Europe; while 
the latter comprises those of Spain, Portugal, Asia Minor, 
Egypt, and Arabia. According to Haddon, the original 
Jews were racially akin to the modem Beduins of northern 
Arabia and blended at an early date with Amorites, 
Philistines, and Hittites, from whom they acquired the 
so-called "Jewish" nose. This entire region, with the 
exception of certain isolated zones, has been overrun in 
historic times by numerous invasions so that the modem 
population is extremely mixed. 

In Persia the basic stock consists of two types — the 
Proto-Nordic and representatives of a branch of the 
Mediterranean race. There are also intrusive elements. 


24 Field Museum of Natural History 

such as the Kurds, Arabs, Armenians, and others who 
have settled in the country. Afghanistan is essentially 
the homeland of the Indo-Afghan stock, which is charac- 
terized by black, wavy hair, light, transparent brown 
complexions, long heads and faces, prominent, narrow 
noses, and dark eyes. An Afghan money lender (No. 33), 
clutching pieces of silver in his right hand, possesses the 
typical features of this group. The inhabitants of Balu- 
chistan are closely related to the Afghans. Among the 
Baluchi, however, the head is more round in shape, so 
that they may be classified among Indo-Iranian peoples. 


There are three main geographical regions in India 
which appear to have influenced the principal racial groups. 
In the north lies the Himalayan chain of mountains; in 
the central northern portion are the sweeping plains called 
Hindustan; while to the south extends the great plateau, 
in many places jungle-covered, called the Deccan. With 
a varied population of about 350,000,000, racial origins 
in India are incapable of exact definition. In prehistoric 
times India was probably inhabited by a primitive 
Negroid population related to the aborigines of Ceylon, 
Sumatra, and possibly even Australia. It is believed also 
that at an early date Dravidian stocks entered India from 
the northwest frontier region and Mongoloid races 
from the northeast territory. Dravidian is the general 
term used by Haddon for the main population of the 
Deccan. The physical characters are a long head, 
abundant, wavy hair, brownish black skin, and medium 

The Veddas of Ceylon are one of the most interesting 
primitive groups in India. They belong to the pre- 
Dravidian division, and their physical characters comprise 
long, black hair which is coarse and wavy, dark brown 
skin, short stature, and the smallest of human skulls. 
The form of the head is long and narrow and the forehead 

Leaflet 30 

Plate VI 


Life size 


Description of Races 25 

slightly retreating, with prominent brow ridges, a relatively 
broad face and nose, thin lips, and pointed chin. 

In the hall (section C) is shown a typical young Vedda 
(No. 23) with a bow by his right side. Among the full- 
length figures of bronze are a Tamil and a man from 
Kashmir. The Tamil occupy the northern half of the 
island of Ceylon and part of the mainland of southern 
India. They belong to the Dravidian group. A Tamil 
(No. 35) is shown in the act of climbing a large palm 
tree — a feat which is performed with uncanny skill. The 
Kashmiri from Gwalior (No. 27) is shown in the attitude 
of meditation. These people possess a light, transparent, 
brown skin, and are usually of relatively tall stature. The 
head is long with a well-developed forehead, a long, 
narrow face, regular features, and prominent, finely 
chiseled, narrow nose. 

Other figures in this section represent a Singhalese 
(No. 26) from Kandy in Ceylon; a man from Kashmir 
(No. 28); a woman (No. 25) from Rajputana belonging 
to the "untouchable" caste; a Brahman (No. 29) from 
Benares; and a man (No. 31) and a woman (No. 32) 
from Bengal. These sculptures show the refined features 
of the people of northern India. There is also the head 
of a beautiful Jaipur woman (No. 30) carved from lime- 
stone. It is remarkable for the regularity of her pleasing 

The Andaman Islands, located in the Indian Ocean, 
are inhabited by members of the Negrito group, which 
comprises the Semang of the Malay Peninsula and eastern 
Sumatra; the Aeta of the Philippine Islands, and the 
Tapiro of New Guinea. The Andamanese are represented 
by an individual (No. 36) seated on a rock with his large 
bow held in his left hand and an arrow drawn back to his 
right cheek. He possesses the characteristic features of 
his group, which are short, black hair (in others some- 
times with a reddish tinge), black skin, well-proportioned 
body, a small, round head, and small hands. The face is 

26 Field Museum of Natural History 

broad, the lips full but not everted, and there is no 
projection of the jaws. 

The inhabitants of Burma represent southern Mon- 
goloid tjHpes, possessing black hair (almost absent on the 
face and body), round heads, broad faces and noses, and 
frequently oblique eyes. The color of the skin varies 
from yellow to brown according to locality. For example, 
the farther removed from China, the less yellow is the 
color of the skin. As a representative of these people, 
the head of a man (No. 34) is shown, and is interesting in 
comparison with the peoples of India and China. 


The population of this region may be divided into two 
sections — a large southern Mongoloid group and a group 
not included in this classification. In the dense jungles of 
the Malay Peninsula live the Semang and the Sakai. The 
former belong to the Negrito or Pygmy group, since they 
are five feet or less in stature. The hair is short and 
frizzy, black in color with a reddish tinge and sparse on 
the face and body. The skin is dark chocolate brown in 
color. The shape of the head tends to be round; the lips 
are generally thin; the nose is short, flat, and extremely 
broad. The Semang also inhabit the eastern portion of 
the island of Sumatra. The representative of this group 
is a Pygmy hunter (No. 64) with his long blow-gun poised 
for shooting a bird from a leafy tree top. 

In the southern part of the Malay Peninsula also live 
the Sakai, who represent the second element among the 
aboriginal tribes of this region. They have intermarried 
considerably with the Negritos in the north and the Proto- 
Malays in the south. They differ from the Negritos in 
the lighter color of their skins, in their greater stature, 
and in their long, wavy, or curly hair, which is black 
with a reddish tinge. The Sakai belong to the pre- 
Dravidian group, being related to the Veddas of Ceylon 

Description of Races 27 

and to the primitive jungle tribes of southern India. 
The head of the Sakai (No. 63) was modeled by Miss 
Hoffman in ninety minutes in the Malayan jungle. 

There is still a third primitive group in the Malay 
Peninsula. The Jakun, sometimes called "Savage Malays," 
possess a dark red or coppery-brown skin and straight, 
dark, coarse hair. The head is round with high cheek- 
bones and dark eyes with a tendency to obliquity. Busts 
of a Jakun man (No. 65) and a girl (No. 67) are shown. 

In marked contrast to these primitive types, there is 
a pure type of Malay (No. 61) whose features express a 
high grade of intelligence compared with the Jakun. 

The Malayan family (or, as it is also called, Indo- 
nesian) is distributed over the greater portion of the 
Malay Archipelago. It may be divided into the following 
groups: the Malay proper of the Malay Peninsula; the 
aborigines of the Philippines, Borneo, and Celebes; the 
Javanese and Sundanese of Java and Bali; and the Bataks 
of Sumatra. There are also scattered members of this 
family in Formosa and Madagascar. A typical Malayan 
is relatively short in stature; has dark, wavy hair, tawny 
yellow-colored skin ; lozenge-shaped face, prominent cheek- 
bones, and slightly projecting jaws. The shape of the head 
varies markedly from long to round, with the former as 
the probable basic shape. 

The types selected from the peoples of the Malay 
Archipelago represent a Dyak from Sarawak in Borneo 
(No. 62), who bears an elaborate tattooed design on his 
chest; a boy (No. 69) and a young girl (No. 71) from Java; 
and an attractive woman from the picturesque island of 
Bali (No. 70). There is also a composite group of figures 
representing various people of the Archipelago (No. 73). 
These are a pair of cockfighters intent on their national 
sport, watched by a girl from Bali with a platter of fruit 
balanced on her head, and a small boy from Java eating 
a banana. In physical type the two men are similar, 

28 Field Museum of Natural History 

although one is from Borneo and the other from the island 
of Madura, situated off the north coast of Java. 


The present Republic of China extends over an area 
which may exceed 4,000,000 square miles, with a popula- 
tion of about 400,000,000 within the boundary of China 
proper. The Chinese represent a single racial unit, which 
has had sufficient strength to maintain its culture and 
traditions in the face of numerous invaders. The Chinese 
as a whole are medium in stature. The shape of the head 
is intermediate between long and round, the skin yellowish 
brown in color, eyes oblique with the Mongolian fold, and 
hair straight and black. 

There are, according to Buxton, two types of northern 
Chinese, one of which appears to be allied to the southern 
Chinese, and the other to the eastern Tibetans. From 
statistical data it can be shown that there is a tall element 
in the population, only paralleled among the neighboring 
Tibetans. The people of southern China belong to the 
same group as the northerners, but there are certain 
remarkable differences. In southern China the stature is 
less and the head is shorter in length, which increases the 
cephalic index as the breadth remains fairly constant. 
The width of the nose appears slightly greater, which may 
be due to the increase of heat and moisture of the climate. 
The color of the skin appears to be darker in the south. 

As representatives of the racial types of China, the 
following are on exhibition: the full-length figure of a 
Chinese coolie (No. 49) posed in the shafts of his jinriksha; 
and the bust of a Cantonese woman (No. 40) of the peasant 
class, over her shoulder a bamboo pole, which is used 
for carrying loads. There are also a bronze bust of a 
Chinese scholar (No. 41) and a stone bust of an attractive 
lady (No. 42) in her ornamented robes. 

In prehistoric times the Ainu were the earliest inhabit- 
ants of the islands which now comprise the Japanese 

Leaflet 30 

Plate VII 

Life size 

«... fl'We 

Description of Races 29 

empire. At present confined to the northern island of 
Yezo, the Kuriles, and the southern portion of Saghalin 
Island, they differ from the Japanese and all other Mon- 
golian races in their luxuriant black beards, the bushy 
and wavy head hair, and the general hairiness of other 
parts of the body. The color of the skin resembles that 
of the tanned central European. Medium in stature, 
the average Ainu is thick-set, with a head intermediate in 
shape between long and round, and a broad face, which 
does not project markedly. The narrow nose is short 
and concave. The large horizontal eyes are usually dark 
brown in color. The racial position of the Ainu is 
a question of considerable interest. They represent a 
prehistoric stock, which has been markedly specialized. 

There are two distinct types of modem Japanese, one 
of which possesses fine features, while the other is more 
coarse in type. Both possess certain traits in common. 
The hair is always black and may be curly in form, 
especially where influenced by Ainu blood. In general, 
the stature is short, although there is considerable varia- 
tion. The cephalic index and skin color are also variable 
characters. The color of the eyes is dark brown. In 
order to differentiate between the two classes, it will be 
necessary to make some comparisons. 

The fine or aristocratic type is tall and slender, with 
an elongated face, prominent, narrow, arched nose, eyes 
either straight or oblique, and the epicanthic fold rarely 
absent. The coarse type, which may represent immigrants 
from southeastern Asia, is short and stocky, with a broad 
face, short, concave nose with roimded nostrils, an oblique 
eye, usually an epicanthic fold, and a darker complexion 
than the other group. 

As representatives of these islands are shown the bust 
of a Japanese man (No. 51) and a yoimg woman (No. 50). 
The life-size statue of a middle-aged Ainu (No. 52) 
is a most important contribution to the study of this 
racial type. The Ainu are a shy and retiring people, but, 

30 Field Museum op Natural History 

with generous local assistance, Malvina Hoffman was 
able to model the Ainu in question. She likewise modeled 
the head of a young man of this primitive tribe (No. 53). 


Central Asia comprises Tibet, Chinese Turkestan, and 
Mongolia. Northern Asia is practically identical with 
Siberia, which covers approximately one-quarter of the 
entire continent. The vast area of northern Asia is 
divided by the Yenisei River into western and eastern 
Siberia. The inhabitants may be grouped as Palaeo- 
Siberians and Neo-Siberians. The latter, ' who inhabit 
chiefly the western geographical division, are a miscel- 
laneous group including the Finnish-speaking tribes, 
Samoyeds, and Turkish groups. 

Among the Palaeo-Asiatics are the Chukchi of north- 
eastern Siberia; the Koryak, who live between the Anadir 
River and Kamchatka; and the Kamchadal. The Gilyak, 
Ainu, and those Eskimo who live on the Asiatic side of 
Bering Straits, are sometimes included in this division. 
The physical characters are black hair, brown or reddish- 
colored sparse beard, yellowish white or brown skin, some- 
times with a flat face, prominent cheek-bones, oblique 
eyes, and a straight or concave nose. The head form 
varies from intermediate to round, although traces of a 
very ancient long-headed stock are definitely present. 

On exhibition in Hall 3 is a seated figure of a Tibetan 
priest from Lhasa (No. 44), his brow furrowed, deep in 
meditation. There are also the portrait head of a Tibetan 
woman from Lhasa (No. 45), and the head of a Mongol 
priest (No. 38) from Outer Mongolia. 

The head of an Eskimo man (No. 39) and a woman 
(No. 37) are shown in the Asiatic division of the hall, 
because of their close racial affinities with the Mongoloid 
group whose physical characters they possess. They are, 
however, short in stature, with long and high head, flat 
and broad face, prominent cheek-bones, narrow prominent 
nose, and remarkably small hands and feet. 

Description of Races 31 

IV. America 

Before the advent of European peoples the population 
of the Americas consisted of aborigines, called by Columbus 
Indians. From a historical viewpoint they are the true 
Americans. Moreover, up to the present time, there is 
no definite archaeological evidence for the existence of 
any pre-Indian peoples or cultures. It is generally con- 
ceded that the Indians are of Mongoloid stock. They 
entered the New World at least fifteen thousand years 
ago in a series of migrations extending over many years. 
Small groups probably crossed Bering Straits, either 
because of pressure from hostile tribes or in search of new 
himting grounds. Traveling south and east, they gradually 
spread over North, Central, and South America. The 
theory of waves of migration is corroborated by the fact 
that on either side of Bering Straits the country is incapable 
of supporting a large population, and by the fact that the 
American Indians, while possessing many traits in common, 
often show differentiation in variable physical characters. 
I The constant physical characters of the American 
Indians consist of a brown skin which frequently bears a 
reddish or yellowish tinge; dark eyes; straight, coarse, 
black hair; a minimum of beard and body hair; and a broad 
face with high and prominent cheek-bones. The head is 
usually round, although there are certain groups in which 
long heads predominate. With regard to stature, this 
character also varies in different groups. The tallest 
people inhabited the region of the Mississippi Valley and 
extended for some distance to the north and east. 

Among the Plains Indians and the tribes of the 
Northern and Eastern Woodlands there is little variation 
of the above characters. The Northwest Coast Indians, 
however, possess lighter skin and hair than do the other 
groups. They are medium in stature, with short bodies 
and long arms, and apparently are closely allied to the 
natives of northeastern Asia. The tribes north of this 
general region, including the Tlingit, Haida, and Tsim- 

32 Field Museum of Natural History 

shian, are above the average in stature. They have large 
heads with extremely broad faces and concave or straight 
noses. In the southern part of this region, as, for example, 
among the Kwakiutl, the people are less tall, and are 
round-headed, with broad, high faces, and very high, 
narrow noses, which are frequently convex in shape. 
These Indians inhabit the northwest coast from Lat. 60° 
north to the northern boundary of the state of Washington. 
In the hall are shown a magnificent Blackfoot Indian 
(No. 55; Plate VIII) in the pose he adopts at the end of 
a successful hunt; and the head of a Sioux brave (No. 56). 

The Eskimo form a definite group, clearly of Asiatic 
origin. In many respects they are the most Mongoloid 
of all Americans. They are distinguished by a short, 
stocky build; markedly long heads, combined with very 
broad faces (an unusual feature in a people with a long 
skull); massive jaws; and narrow noses. The sides of the 
head are often flat, and a ridge may be present down the 
center of the skull. The eyes frequently show the Mon- 
goloid fold. For purposes of comparison the Eskimos 
have been placed in the Asiatic section (p. 30). 

In Mexico and Central America the average stature is 
medium to short, and round heads predominate, although 
the evidence suggests that the first inhabitants were long- 
headed and were conquered by these later invaders. 

The Indians of South America bear, in general, the 
physical characters common to the whole race. It is 
believed that they entered that continent through a succes- 
sion of migrations by way of the Isthmus of Panama. 

From time to time it has been asserted that early 
human remains have been discovered in America; for 
example, in Argentina, primitive types of Tertiary fossil 
man were reported; but all alleged evidence of this 
character has been discredited. As in the case of North 
America, no definite archaeological evidence of early man 
has come to light. The oldest burials reveal long-headed 

Leaflet 30 

Plate VIII 

Life size 

if itt 

Description of Races 33 

t3T)es. At the present time traces of this character are 
found in peoples with a marginal or isolated distribution. 

V. Oceania 

Oceania is the area which extends from Australia to 
Easter Island and from New Zealand northward to 
Hawaii, and includes all the island groups of the Pacific 
Ocean. The consensus of opinion is that man first entered 
the Pacific area from southeastern Asia. There have also 
been several important waves of migration, which add to 
the complexity of the racial problems involved. The six 
principal racial divisions in Oceania include the inhabitants 
of Australia, Tasmania, Melanesia, New Guinea, Polynesia, 
and Micronesia. 


Australia is the smallest continent, in area being 
approximately the same size as the United States. In 
general, the physical traits of the Australian aborigines 
are uniform throughout the continent, although there 
are numerous minor variations. Archaeological evidence 
suggests that man entered this continent at a very early 
date and that he remained but little changed by outside 
factors until the arrival of the first Europeans in 1606. 

The physical characters of the aboriginal Australian 
are jet black wavy or curly hair, which is often well 
developed on the face; dark chocolate brown skin; medium 
stature; and a long head with a fiat, retreating forehead, 
prominent brow ridges, projecting face, and a deeply set, 
broad nose. 


The Tasmanians became extinct during the latter part 
of the nineteenth century. They were of medium height, 
had black to dark brown skins, woolly hair, and heavy 
brow ridges. The face was long, oval, or pentagonal in 
shape, while the head was sloping and small in size. The 
nose was short and broad, and the teeth were large. In 
general, the physical characters and primitive culture of 

34 Field Museum of Natural History 

the Tasmanians were similar to those of the Australians. 
There is reason to suppose that they were part of the same 
group which migrated into that region at an early date. 


The name is derived from the black skin color of the 
peoples who inhabit these islands. This area embraces 
the Bismarck Archipelago, northeast of New Guinea, the 
Louisiade, Solomon, Santa Cruz, New Hebrides and 
Loyalty Islands, New Caledonia, Fiji, and small inter- 
vening groups. While a large Papuan element prevails 
throughout the population of Melanesia, there have also 
been several movements of racial stocks from Indonesia. 
The result of these minglings of peoples is that the modem 
population shows considerable variation and is by no 
means homogeneous in character. The hair of the 
Melanesians is usually woolly, but may be either curly 
or wavy. The skin ranges from very dark to light brown. 
The stature varies from short to medium. The head is 
usually long in shape, but there are isolated round-headed 
groups. The forehead is commonly rounded, and the 
brow ridges are rarely prominent. The nose is broad, 
sometimes straight, and broader than that of the Papuan. 


The inhabitants of New Guinea and the adjacent island 
groups belong to the woolly-haired branch of mankind. 
There is considerable variety of racial type, which is 
subdivided into Negritos, Papuans, and Melanesians. 
Typical Negritos are the Tapiro Pygmies of the western 
mountains in Dutch New Guinea, who can be compared 
with the inhabitants of the Andaman Islands, the Semang 
Pygmies of the central part of the Malay Peninsula and 
eastern Sumatra, and the Negritos of the Philippines.. 

The hair of the Tapiro is short, black in color, and 
abundant on face and body. The skin is yellowish brown 
in color. In stature the average Tapiro is four feet nine 
inches. The head shows considerable variation in shape. 

Description of Races 35 

the nose is straight and of medium breadth. A trait 
frequent among them and among other Negritos is that 
the upper Hp is deep and convex. 

The Papuans are dark-skinned, short in stature, and 
long-headed. The black hair is often long and may be 
abundant on the face. The forehead is retreating, the 
brow ridges are prominent, and the lower part of the face 
projects markedly. The broad nose is often prominent and 
convex, while the tip is sometimes turned down. The 
Papuans now inhabit the greater part of New Guinea, 
and were originally distributed throughout Melanesia. 
Formerly they were probably in parts of Australia and 
certainly as a variety in Tasmania. 


This area of the central Pacific region includes the 
numerous groups and small islands mostly situated south 
of the equator. The two islands of New Zealand are the 
largest of the entire area, which also includes the Hawaiian, 
Society and Marquesan groups, as well as Tonga and 
Samoa. The origin of the Polynesians remains in con- 
siderable doubt, but it is believed that at an early date 
they migrated into this large area from southeastern 
Asia. The Polynesian is of good appearance and average 
to tall in stature, the hair being straight or wavy in form 
and black in color. The skin varies from that of a South 
European to several shades of brown. The shape of the 
head is round, but there are smaller divisions of people 
with long or intermediate shaped heads. In general form 
the face is elliptical with relatively prominent cheek-bones, 
and a prominent nose generally straight as among the 
Maori, but sometimes convex. 


To the north of Melanesia lie countless islands includ- 
ing the Marianne, Caroline, Marshall, and Gilbert groups, 
which together form the area known as Micronesia. The 
population is extremely mixed, containing certain Mela- 

36 Field Museum of NATUtiAL History 

nesian, Polynesian, and Malaysian influences. The skin 
color ranges from brown to nearly yellow, and the hair is 
wavy or straight, but in the west some individuals are 
very dark-skinned with frizzly hair, while others are light- 
skinned with wavy or straight hair. The eyes are almost 
black and the cheek-bones relatively prominent. In 
stature the Micronesians are medium and are not so 
robust as the Polynesians. 

In the hall various representatives of the peoples of 
Oceania are shown. Australia is represented by the full- 
length figures of a man (No. 72), a woman and child 
(No. 68), and the head of a woman (No. 66). The man 
is shown in a characteristic pose with his primitive wooden 
spear poised for throwing and a boomerang in his left 
hand (Plate IX). On his body are deep scars made by 
searing the flesh with knives. The Solomon Islander 
(No. 60) in the act of climbing a date palm represents 
the Melanesian group. Around his neck is a crescent- 
shaped shell, and he wears a nose-ring. 

Two men from Hawaii (Nos. 57 and 58) and the bust 
of a Samoan (No. 59) are characteristic of the Polynesian 
group. There is a full-length Hawaiian on his surf-board 
as he speeds toward the beach. The Samoan, who holds 
a large knife against his right shoulder, also displays the 
wonderful physique of the Polynesian. 

The exhibits in the hall are not yet completed. A 
number of bronze busts and heads will be added from time 
to time. Also, colored transparencies of racial types will 
be installed, and a section at the east end of the hall 
will be devoted to special scientific exhibits. 

Henry Field 

Leaflet 30 

Rate IX 


Life size 


ewV£RE;;r Of lUHUtt 


Boas, F.— The Mind of Primitive Man. New York, 1911. 
Anthropometry. New York, 1912. 
Descendants of Immigrants. New York, 1912. 
Anthropology and Modern Life. New York, 1928. 

British Museum. — Guide to the Specimens Illustrating the Races 
of Mankind in British Museum. London, 1921. 

Buxton, L. H. D. — The Peoples of Asia. London, 1925. 

Carr-Saunders, a. M. — The Population Problem. Oxford, 1922. 

Deniker, J. — The Races of Man: an outline of anthropology and 
ethnography. New York, 1906. 

Haddon, a. C— The Study of Man. New York, 1898. 

The Races of Man, and Their Distribution. Cambridge, 1924; 
New York, 1925. 

Herskovits, M. J. — Social Selection and the . Formation of Human 
Types. Human Biology, I, 1929, pp. 250-262. 

HooTON, E. A. — The Indians of Pecos Pueblo, a study of their 
skeletal remains. New Haven, 1930. 

Hrdlicka, a.— Physiological and Medical Observations among the 

Indians of Southwestern United States and Northern Mexico. 

Bureau of American Ethnology, Bulletin 34, Washington, 1908. 

Anthropometry. The Wistar Institute of Anatomy and 

Biology, Philadelphia, 1920. 

JOCHELSON, W. — Peoples of Asiatic Russia. American Museum of 
Natural History, New York, 1928. 

Kroeber, a. — Anthropology. New York, 1923. 

Martin, R. — Lehrbuch der Anthropologie in systematischer Darstel- 
lung. 3 vols., Jena, 1928. 

Ripley, W. Z. — The Races of Europe, a sociological study, accom- 
panied by a supplementary bibliography of the anthropology 
and ethnology of Europe. London, 1900. 

RiSLEY, Sir H. H.— The People of India. London, 1908. 

Seligman, C. G. — Races of Africa. London, 1930. 

Seligman, C. G. and Z. B.— The Veddas. Cambridge, 1911. 

Sollas, W. J. — Ancient Hunters. London, 1915. 

Stibbe, E. p. — An Introduction to Physical Anthropology. London, 

Sullivan, L. R. — Essentials of Anthropometry. American Museum 
of Natural History, New York, 1923. 

Wallis, W. D.— Race and Culture. The Scientific Monthly, XXIII, 
1926, pp. 313-321. 


u u u u 1^ ^ u u y u 

A O C D 

n n n n lt^°^ n n H n 













Unless stated otherwise the material is bronze. An asterisk 
denotes life-size, full-length figures, the remainder are heads or busts. 


*1. Bushman family, Kalahari Desert, South Africa. 

2. Old Bushman, same locality. 

3. Woman, Abyssinia (black marble). 

4. Bushman woman, Kalahari Desert, South Africa. 

*5. Negro dancing girl, Sara tribe, Lake Chad district. Age 15. 
Stature 5 feet 7 inches. 

6. Batwa boy with filed teeth, Belgian Congo. 

7. Mangbetu woman, Belgian Congo, Central Africa. 

8. Negro, Dahomey, West Africa. 

*9. Shilluk warrior, Upper White Nile, East Africa. Age 25. 
Stature 6 feet 8 inches. 

10. Ubangi woman, French Equatorial Africa. 

11. Woman, Sudan. 

12. Somali, East Africa. 

*13. Negro drummer, Senegal. Age 25. Stature 6 feet 1 inch. 

14. Hamite, Abyssinia. 

15. Nubian. 

*16. Pygmy group, Ituri Forest, Belgian Congo. 


17. Mediterranean, French type. 

*18. Mediterranean type represented by fisherman from Sicily. 

19. Anglo-Saxon, England. 

20. Woman, Brittany, France. 
*21. Nordic type. 

22. Basque, northern Spain. 


*23. Vedda, Ceylon. Age 28. Stature 5 feet 6 inches. 

24. Arab, Kish, Iraq. 

25. Rajput woman, India, belonging to a low caste 


26. Singhalese, Kandy, Ceylon. 

*27. Kashmiri in attitude of meditation, Gwalior, India. Age 25. 
Stature 5 feet 9 inches. 

28. Kashmiri, India. 

29. Brahman, Benares, India. Age 35. 

30. Woman (stone), Jaipur, India. 

31. Bengali, India. 

32. Bengali woman, India. 

33. Afghan, Peshawar, India. Age 40. 

34. Burmese. 

*35. Tamil in the act of climbing a tree, India. 



40 Field Museum of Natural History Q F P W 1933 

*36. Andaman Islander, India. 

37. Eskimo woman, North America. UNIVERSITY OF ILLIN 

38. Mongol, Outer Mongolia. 

39. Eskimo, North America. 

40. Cantonese woman, southern China. Age 35. 

41. Chinese, type of scholar, central China. 

42. Chinese woman (stone), type of scholar. 

43. Chinese, type of scholar. 

*44. Priest, Lhasa, Tibet, seated cross-legged. Age 51. Stature 
5 feet 5 inches. 

45. Woman, Lhasa, Tibet. 

46. Chinese laborer. 

47. Chinese (stone), Shanghai. 

48. Manchu, Peiping, China. 

*49. Chinese jinriksha coolie. North Chinese type. Age 30. 

Stature 5 feet 3 inches. 
50. Japanese woman. Age 24. 
61. Japanese. 

*52. Ainu, Island of Yezo (Hokkaido), northern Japan. Age 57. 
Stature 5 feet 1 inch. 
53. Young Ainu, same locality. 

*55. Blackfoot Indian, United States. Age 28. Stature 6 feet. 
56. Sioux Indian, United States. 


*57. Hawaiian riding on a surf-board, Polynesia. Age 21. 
Stature 5 feet 10 inches. 

58. Hawaiian, Polynesia. 

59. Samoan, Polynesia. 

*60. Solomon Islander climbing a tree, Melanesia. 

61. Malay, Malay Peninsula. 

62. Dyak, Borneo. 

63. Sakai, Tupah, Malay Peninsula. Stature 4 feet 8 inches. 
*64. Semang Pygmy, Johore, Malay Peninsula. Stature 4 feet 

5 inches. 

65. Jakun, Johore, Malay Peninsula. Age 40. Stature 5 feet 

1 inch. 

66. Australian woman. 

67. Jakun woman, Johore, Malay Peninsula. Age 26. Stature 

4 feet 10 inches. 
*68. Australian mother and child. 

69. Man, Java. 

70. Woman, Bali. 

71. Woman, Java. 
*72. Australian. 

*73. Group of cockfighters, Madura, Borneo, Java, Bali. 
*74. Group symbolizing unity of mankind, consisting of three 
statues representing a white, a black, and a yellow man.